Vet Terminology starting with B on Bruning.com - from B Cell to Bun


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B cell - Also called 'B lymphocyte.' The type of lymphocyte which produces antibody. Compare with 'T cells.'

Bacteriocidal - A description of an agent that kills bacteria.

Bacteriostatic - A description of an agent that stops the growth (reproduction) of bacteria, but does NOT kill them.

Bacterium - Microscopic organisms that lack nuclei and other organelles; pathogenic species cause disease, while nonpathogenic species are harmless.

Benign - A mild illness or non-malignant form of a tumor. Benign tumors usually have well defined edges and tend to grow slowly.

Beta blockers - Heart medications which block certain receptors in the heart called beta receptors. The beta receptors receive signals which generally increase the heart rate. If the heart rate is abnormally fast and uneven, beta blockers will help stabilize the rate and rhythm of contractions.

Beta-carotene - A plant pigment which can be converted to Vitamin A by many animals, but not by cats.

Beta-lactamases - Enzymes produced by some bacteria which inactivate certain types of penicillin, thus making the bacteria resistant to them.

Bilateral - On both sides.

Bile - A liquid produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and dispensed into the small intestine as needed; aids in the digestion and absorption of fats.

Bile acids - Certain compounds produced by the liver, bound to amino acids, and excreted in the bile to aid in the digestion of fats.

Bilirubin - An orange-yellow pigment in bile that is a product of red blood cell breakdown; it is normally excreted with the urine or feces, and a buildup in the body can cause jaundice.

Biopsy - The surgical removal of a small amount of abnormal tissue, usually of tumors, for diagnosis.

Bitch - A female dog.

Bladder - A sac that receives and holds a liquid until it is excreted, e.g., urinary bladder, gall bladder; in fish, the swim bladder holds air.

Blepharospasm - Spasm of the eyelids often resulting in complete closure of the lids due to eye pain, such as seen with a scratch on the cornea.

Bloat - Filling of the stomach with air.

Blood gases - Gases, such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, that are in the blood.

Blood glucose - A graph of blood glucose levels over time. At the time of insulin injection, and at regular intervals throughout the day, the level of glucose in the blood is determined through laboratory testing.

Bone marrow - A soft tissue composed of blood vessels and connective tissues found at the center of bones; the primary function is blood cell production.

Bone marrow suppression - A condition in which the cells of the bone marrow which produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are inhibited. This may result from the use of certain drugs, such as anti-cancer agents.

Borborygmus - The sound of gas moving through the intestine; bowel sounds.

Bradycardia - An abnormal slowing of the heart rate.

Bronchi - The plural of bronchus, the large air passages of the lungs.

Bronchiole - The small airways in the lung that come off of the larger bronchus; bronchioles are 1 mm or less in diameter.

Bronchodilator - Medication which opens up the main air passages to the lungs.

Bronchoscope - A tool designed to facilitate inspection of the trachea and bronchi; used in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

Bronchoscopy - The internal inspection of the trachea and bronchi using a bronchoscope.

Bronchospasm - A condition in which the muscles surrounding the air passages to the lungs contract, narrowing the passages.

BUN - Short for 'blood urea nitrogen,' a blood test that estimates kidney function.