Vet Terminology starting with M on Bruning.com - from Macrophage to Myocardium


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Macrophage - A type of phagocyte (cell in the body which 'eats' damaged cells and foreign substances such as virus and bacteria).

Malabsorption syndrome - Maldigestion syndrome: A condition involving the intestine in which food may not be properly digested or the nutrients not absorbed.

Malignant - A process that does harm to nearby tissues. Usually synonymous with cancer, a tumor that grows quickly and spreads into other tissues.

Malnutrition - Ill health due to dietary deficiency or imbalance.

Mammary - Pertaining to the breast.

Mandible - Lower jaw.

Mange - Any of several skin and ear conditions caused by a variety of mites.

MAOIs - Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Substances that inactivate the enzyme monoamine oxidase which regulates certain transmitter chemicals between nerves. These compounds include certain types of antidepressants and also insecticides containing amitraz (such as Mitaban and Preventic collars).

Marsupial - An order of mammals including kangaroos, opossums, and sugar gliders in which the female has a pouch on the abdomen which holds the young and has nipples for the young to nurse.

Mast cell tumor - A nodular growth, usually on the skin, which involves cells (mast cells) which contain large amounts of histamine and normally play a role in allergic reactions. All mast cell tumors in dogs should be considered potentially malignant.

Masticate - Chew.

Mastitis - An infection or inflammation of the mammary glands.

Maternal antibody - Antibody in a newborn animal which the newborn acquired through the placenta or colostrum (the first milk).

Meal - When referring to food ingredients, meal means a ground-up preparation. Chicken meal is ground up chicken, which might include bones and feathers. Meat meal means ground up muscle meat.

Median survival time - Time at which 50% of the animals had died.

Megacolon - A condition in which the colon enlarges and dilates, which results in feces accumulating in the colon. Constipation then occurs. This condition is more common in cats than dogs.

Melena - Darkening of the stool due to the presence of digested blood, which indicates bleeding is occurring in the stomach and/or beginning of the small intestine. The feces generally look black and tarry.

Memory(Immunologic) - Memory: When an animal mounts an immune response against a foreign substance, some cells are created to 'remember' the antigens on that substance. If the animal is again exposed to the substance, these cells will help the body respond much faster and to a higher degree.

Metabolic acidosis - A condition in which the pH of the blood is too acidic because of the production of certain types of acids.

Metabolize - To have molecules transformed within the body tissue through chemical processes.

Metabolize energy (ME) - (ME) is the net energy available to an animal from a certain food.

Metacarpus - The front limb between the carpus and the phalanges (toes).

Metastasis - Spread of a tumor from its original location to a remote one, by tumor cells that are carried in the blood.

Metatarsus - The part of the rear limb between the tarsus and the phalanges (toes).

Methemoglobin - An altered hemoglobin which does not carry oxygen.

Methemoglobinemia - A condition of the blood in which there are large amounts of methemoglobin which is an altered hemoglobin which does not carry oxygen.

Microfilaremia - The presence of microfilariae in the blood.

Microfilaria - The larval form of some parasitic worms, for example heartworms. These worms do not lay eggs, they produce microfilariae (plural of microfilaria) instead.

Microfilaricide - Compound which kills microfilaria, the immature forms of heartworms which circulate in the blood.

Microorganism - A single-celled life form that is invisible to the naked eye and that may cause disease in man or animals.

Mineralization - The process in which minerals are laid down within tissue in an abnormal pattern causing a hardening of the tissue.

Mineralocorticoids - Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which regulate the amounts of sodium, potassium, and chloride in the blood.

Miticide - An agent that kills mites.

Mitochondria - Parts of the cell which are responsible for providing the cell with energy.

mL - Short for milliliter. A liquid measure, the same volume as a cc. 28 mL = 1 liquid oz.

Modified live vaccine - Vaccines which are made by taking the real, disease-causing virus and altering (attenuating) it in a laboratory to a non-disease causing virus. Compare with 'killed vaccine' and 'recombinant vaccine.'

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor(MAOI) - Substances that inactivate the enzyme monoamine oxidase which regulates certain transmitter chemicals between nerves. These compounds include certain types of antidepressants and also insecticides containing amitraz (such as Mitaban and Preventic collars).

Monovalent vaccine - A vaccine that is manufactured to stimulate the body to produce protection against only one disease, e.g., rabies vaccine. Compare with 'multivalent vaccine.'

MotilityMovement - intestinal motility is the muscular contractions of the intestines which move the food from the stomach to the anus.

Mucolytic - Breaks down mucous.

Mucopolysaccharide - A carbohydrate which also contains a hexosamine molecule and is a component of mucous.

Mucosa - Specialized membrane which covers various passages and cavities exposed to the air such as the mouth, nose, inner portion of the eyelids, vagina. Examination of the mucous membranes can provide important information: if they are dry, the animal is likely dehydrated; pale, and the animal may be anemic or in shock; yellow, and the animal is said to jaundiced due to accumulation of waste products which should be eliminated by the liver. Mucous membranes.

Mucous membranes - Specialized membrane which covers various passages and cavities exposed to the air such as the mouth, nose, inner portion of the eyelids, vagina. Examination of the mucous membranes can provide important information: if they are dry, the animal is likely dehydrated; pale, and the animal may be anemic or in shock; yellow, and the animal is said to be jaundiced due to accumulation of waste products which should be eliminated by the liver.

Multivalent vaccine - A vaccine that combines two or more components to stimulate the body to produce protection against all the components. Most 'distemper' vaccines for puppies are of the multivalent type, and commonly include distemper, parvovirus, adenovirus cough, hepatitis, and parainfluenza. Compare with 'monovalent' vaccine.

Musculoskeletal - Pertaining to the muscles and skeleton.

Myasthenia gravis - Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disease in which there is a failure of the nerves' ability to stimulate and control the actions of certain muscles.

Mycosis - Disease caused by a fungus such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and ringworm.

Mydriasis - Small pupil size.

Myelogram - Radiograph (x-ray) of the spinal cord taken after a contrasting dye has been injected into the space around the spinal cord.

Myocardium - The middle layer of heart muscle.